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painter and printmaker, was one of the leading painters in German
Renaissance and one of the greatest artists in the world of the
art history. He was born on May 21,1471 in Nuremberg, South Germany.
He was a son of the successful goldsmith Albrecht
Durer the Elder and Barbara
Holper. The early training of the
young Durer was in the field of drawings and woodcuts, which have
remained the main priorities in his future art career. From 1486
till 1489 he was an apprentice in the workshop of the Nuremberg
painter Michael Wohlgemut.
traveled a lot. In 1490 he had left his own town for four years.
He visited Koln, Strasbourg and Netherlands and than, between 1494-95
and 1505-07, he visited Venice, Bologna and perhaps Florence and
Rome. His fame of incredible engraver went across Europe and the painters of Italy
have been influenced by his ideas. In Venice he met the old painter
Giovanni Bellini and he delighted him. In 1495 he returned to Nuremberg,
where he established his own studio.
of the best-known series of Durer is ”Apocalypse”, contains 18 woodcuts.
The most famous among them is "The
four horseman of the Apocalypse (1498)".
One of his admirers – Kurfursten Friedrich the III, otherwise had
known as Friedrich the Wise, whose portrait Durer painted in 1496,
valuing the gift of the artist, ordered a several altar paintings,
for the new-build at that time Wittenberg Castle - “The
Jabach Altarpiece”(1503-1504), “The
Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand.”(1508),
“The Adoration of the Kings
“(1504). The last is considered as
one of the Durer’s masterpieces.
by the work of the artist, wealthy Nuremberg’s citizens ordered
him series of paintings on religious subjects – “
Lot fleeing with his daughters from Sodom”(1498),
over the dead Christ”(1500-1503), “The
Adoration of the Holy Trinity”(1511). Besides
his work devoted on religious subjects, Durer was famous by the
portraits ordered often to him. Among the best of them are: “
Portrait of Durer’s Father at 70”(1497),
Portrait of Oswolt Krel”(1499), ”
Portrait of Bernhard von Reesen”(1521),
of Hieronymus Holzschuher”(1526),
Self-portrait at 22”(1493), “
Self-portrait at 26”(1498), “Self-portrait
Durer painted watercolors paintings (landscape paintings and
sketches). The best-known among them are:
”House by the Pond”(1496), “The
Willow Mill”(1496-1498), "Young
The best achievements of Durer as an engraver are three engravings
done between (1513-1514), considered as his masterpieces: “The
Knight, Death and the Devil”(1513), ”St.
Jerome”(1514) and “Melencolia
I”(1514). After he completed the work on
the engravings, Durer worked for Emperor
Maxmillian I, who ordered him a project for a
huge printed work of "The
Triumphal Arch" dedicated to the achievements
of the Emperor. The length of this monumental project, made on 192
wooden blocks, was 330-cm. It was the biggest wood engraving ever printed.
Durer became one of the first enthusiastic followers of Martin
Luther. His new faith can be sensed in the strong of the stile and
the objects of his religious works after 1520. The culmination during
that period is the make of ”The
Four Holy Man”(1526). As restless intellectual searchers, Durer and Leonardo da
Vinci had much in common.
Durer wrote and published: "Treatise
on the Mesuration”(1525), "Instruction
on the Fortification of Cities, Castles and Towns”(1527),
and his fundamental work - ”Treatise
on Human Proportions"(1528) published in October 1528, six months
after his death. Durer died on April 6,1528 in Nuremberg.
Durer was the most universal, well-balanced
and greatest painter of Germany for all times!